The manufacturing industry is the main body of the national economy, the foundation of a country and the foundation of a strong country. After years of hard work, my country's manufacturing industry has developed rapidly, and great progress has been made in many fields. However, from the perspective of the core competitiveness of the manufacturing industry, my country still has many shortcomings. In this regard, experts suggest that the manufacturing industry should strengthen R&D and design, comprehensively improve product grade and quality, obtain high added value through innovation, brand, and service, and shift from relying mainly on material resource input to mainly relying on technological progress, high-quality human resources and management innovation change.On December 25, the Strategic Consulting Center of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics and other units jointly issued the "2020 China Manufacturing Power Development Index Report" (hereinafter referred to as the "Report"). The "Report" shows that China's manufacturing power development index is 110.84, which ranks in the forefront of the third array.
According to reports, the "China Manufacturing Power Development Index" consists of four sub-values: scale development, quality and efficiency, structural optimization, and sustainable development, which comprehensively reflect the strength and weakness of a country's manufacturing industry.
Zhu Gaofeng, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, said that developed countries mostly regard quality, efficiency, structural optimization, and sustainable development as their own manufacturing international competitiveness advantages, while the main support for the development of my country’s manufacturing power is still scale development, starting from the core competitiveness of manufacturing Looking at it, my country has not yet entered the second array of manufacturing powers, and the road to high-quality transformation and development has a long way to go.
There is a gap in the overall level of manufacturing
The manufacturing industry is the main body of the national economy, the foundation of a country and the foundation of a strong country. After years of hard work, my country's manufacturing industry has developed rapidly, and great progress has been made in many fields. However, compared with developed countries, there is still a big gap in the overall level of my country's manufacturing industry.
The "Report" shows that in 2019, in the context of increasing downward pressure on the world economy and the gradual heating up of the game among major powers, the U.S. Manufacturing Power Development Index reached 168.71, which continued to be higher than that of other countries, ranking first in the array, with outstanding comprehensive advantages; Germany and Japan were respectively 125.65 and 117.16, ranking second in the array, with obvious relative advantages; China, South Korea, France, and the United Kingdom are 110.84, 73.95, 70.07, and 60.03, respectively, in the third array.
It is worth noting that from 2012 to 2019, the value-added rate of my country's manufacturing industry has always hovered around 20%, which is a significant gap compared with the long-term high level of more than 30% in the United States and Germany.
In this regard, Shan Zhongde, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and president of Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, believes that the current supply-side structural reform is the main line to improve the quality of manufacturing supply, increase the value-added rate of the manufacturing industry, and accelerate the promotion of high-quality manufacturing development. Changes in the stages of my country's economic development are an inevitable requirement for comprehensively building a modern socialist country. He suggested that the manufacturing industry should strengthen R&D and design, comprehensively improve product grade and quality, obtain high added value through innovation, brand, and service, and shift from relying mainly on material resource input to mainly relying on technological progress, high-quality human resources and management innovation. At the same time, it is necessary to reduce consumption and cost, pay attention to the problems of overcapacity and low-level repetitive construction in the development of various regions, encourage mergers and reorganizations of enterprises, guide the development of characteristic and advantageous industries in various regions, and achieve intensive and efficient development. At the same time, it is also necessary to improve the operating efficiency of the existing industrial chain, build a manufacturing system in which upstream, midstream and downstream companies operate in a coordinated and efficient manner, and enhance the modernization of the industrial chain and supply chain.
Innovation needs to be strengthened
The textile industry is an important civilian production industry in my country and an industry with international competitive advantages. Its products are not only used in the fields of clothing and home textiles, but also in many fields such as civil engineering and construction, health and medical care. Since the outbreak of the new crown pneumonia, the textile industry has played an important role in ensuring the supply of global epidemic prevention materials. my country has provided more than 200 billion masks and 2 billion protective clothing to more than 150 countries and 9 international organizations.
At the same time, the development of my country's textile manufacturing industry is also facing problems such as insufficient technological independent innovation capabilities, rising factor costs, and increasing environmental pressures. Data show that the R&D investment intensity of my country's manufacturing industry declined significantly in 2019, only 1.45%, which was 0.78 percentage points lower than the national average (2.23%). "This requires great attention, and take active measures to stabilize and increase manufacturing R&D investment to curb the downward trend." Shan Zhongde said that in the field of basic research, US basic research investment accounts for 15% to 19% of R&D investment. , And showed a slight increase year by year, while my country is hovering at a low level of about 5% all year round. Therefore, it is urgent to strengthen manufacturing R&D, especially basic research investment, from a national strategic height.
Shan Zhongde suggested to implement a mechanism for the steady growth of various types of capital R&D investment, increase financial support for technological innovation in the manufacturing industry, and continue to increase R&D investment for new products, technologies and processes in manufacturing enterprises; The use effect and efficiency of various manufacturing transformation and upgrading funds and special science and technology funds established by governments at the top level, strengthen the assessment of the use of science and technology funds, and make sure that science and technology funds become the propellant for the innovation-driven manufacturing industry .
Expand a new pattern of manufacturing development
The "Report" shows that in recent years, the proportion of my country's manufacturing industry's added value to GDP has been declining in fluctuations. In 2019, it was 27.17%, a year-on-year decrease of 2.23 percentage points, reaching the lowest level since 2012. Correspondingly, the growth rate of the national scale manufacturing industry above designated size has dropped from 10.0% in 2012 to 6.0% in 2019 year by year, entering a stage of sustained medium-to-low growth. In this regard, Shan Zhongde said that this is mainly because the current development of my country's real economy and virtual economy is unbalanced, and the tendency of "off the real to the virtual" is obvious. The inflow of innovative elements such as labor and social capital to the manufacturing industry has slowed down or even declined. There is still a lot of room for further optimization of the development environment; coupled with technological breakthroughs and insufficient innovation capabilities to support the upgrading of the manufacturing value chain, the development speed of emerging industries in the manufacturing industry is not sufficient to drive the growth of the entire manufacturing industry. "Manufacturing is the mainstay of the national economy. It is of great significance to maintain a basically stable proportion of the manufacturing industry and maintain a certain manufacturing development speed." Shan Zhongde said.
At present, my country is in the middle and late stages of industrialization, and the manufacturing industry still needs to accelerate development. In order to prevent the “too fast” and “premature” decline in the proportion of manufacturing industry, the foundation of the real economy should be consolidated and strengthened, based on the new development pattern, giving full play to the advantages of my country’s super-large-scale market, and actively building a number of national advanced manufacturing industry bases to accelerate Structural reforms on the supply side, enhancement of supply capacity, speeding up the provision of new products that can better meet the needs of the people for a better life, and accelerating the realization of industrial scale upgrading.
The meeting also released the "Green Paper on Technological Innovation in Key Fields of China's Manufacturing Industry-Technology Roadmap (2019)", which studied and formulated technology roadmaps for 26 priority industries. Zhou Zhicheng, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, said that it is expected that by 2025, the five priority development directions of communication equipment, advanced rail transit equipment, power transmission and transformation equipment, textile technology and equipment, and home appliance industry will be among the world's leading ranks; aerospace equipment, new Most of the priority development directions, such as energy vehicles, power generation equipment, and building materials, will all enter the world's advanced ranks.